Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch is a fascinating character, something I’m sure you can agree with if you’ve seen any of his work- or even his given name. El Bosco, as he was known after relocating to Spain, had an incredibly rich imagination fitted with fantastical creatures, hellish landscapes, and bizarre inventions that defy description.

His work stands out from other artists from the same time period, given the creatures in his paintings’ almost unbelievable creativity. In the same triptych you can find three fish eating each other- the outermost possessing legs of a cricket, a large clothed bird with dog ears and human legs holding a letter in its beak on ice skates, and a water jug with legs of a deer standing in a pond- just to name a few.

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Bosch’s Temptation of St. Anthony, which contains all of the characters I just described and more

Undeniably biblical, the triptych titled The Garden of Earthly Delights was actually commissioned for a town home in Brussels, despite appearing as an altarpiece. The Last Judgement is the core theme of the incredibly detailed painting, with Bosch clearly using his work to critique the state of sinfulness in the world.

Beginning in the Garden of Eden when God introduced Eve to Adam, things quickly devolved into the mass of sex and debauchery as seen in the middle panel. Finally, God casts his judgement and the lustful people are cast into a hellscape full of freakish creatures, fire, and despair.

 

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The Garden of Earthly Delights, Hieronymus Bosch

Both of these works showcase quite well the phenomenal imagination of Bosch which set him apart from the other Dutch Renaissance painters. His control over color and technical mastery give life to the most remarkable creatures born through sin and hellfire. Bosch’s unique style of painting is easily comparable to both medieval art and surreal painting.

As for the comparison to medieval work, his human and humanoid figures have the same idealized proportions as many painters of that time. They are elongated with little to no muscle definition, and often have rounded features. In addition, some of his bizarre creatures likely drew inspiration from the monastic illustrations found in many books produced in that time period. A prime example would be the The Mouth of Hell from the Winchester Psalter, in which hordes of demons are being locked into Hell by a singular angel.

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The Mouth of Hell from the Winchester Psalter,  1150

It’s very easy to name Bosch an inspiration to surrealist artists- particularly Dali. The unimaginable creatures and comparatively simple backgrounds evoke the same feeling of curiosity. Although Bosch’s preference for religious imagery directly contradicts the “Manifesto of Surrealism”, which clearly states that art should be free from ‘moral purpose’, the figures are still too similar to ignore.

All in all, Bosch’s work has undeniably stood the test of time, and remains a part of pop culture centuries later.

The Mark of Mucha

I was enthusing over art with one of my managers during work this evening (which of course the first artist I had mentioned had to be my dear Bernini) and I was excited to learn he has an affinity for antique posters- Alphonse Mucha in particular.

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An advertisement for White Star Champagne by Mucha, 1899

 

Of course not everyone knows the name, but every art kid I know has gone through a Mucha phase, so my face must have lit up at the name. Now, the reason I use the word phase is not because they eventually grow to dislike his work, let alone think less of him as an artist. In fact it’s quite the opposite, after a few attempts to take elements of his style and make them your own, one comes to the (often frustrating) realization that it is nearly impossible to emulate him without your work looking like a cheap copy.

Therein lies his genius, our flowery Czech artist who has practically become the face of Art Nouveau, created a style so uniquely his own that spoke so perfectly to the time period. His figures are heavily outlined, something he adopted from the Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock prints, but instead of flattening the image like one would expect from such a line, it enhances the dynamics when combined with such strong, yet delicate arabesques.

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The Four Precious Stones series- Topaz, Ruby, Amethyst, and Emerald.

The artists in the movement, much like Mucha himself, found themselves abandoning the conventions of fine art and placing much more value in Les Arts Décoratifs, like the advertisements Mucha created. In addition to the new feeling of creativity, there were also major psychological advancements by Sigmund Freud that enhanced many artists’ exploration of the ‘dream world’. Art Nouveau celebrates femininity and nature- a reaction to the masculinity of the Industrial Revolution. However, the celebration and use of women wasn’t always necessarily positive. Women were finally beginning to gain equal rights and the ability to become increasingly independent, and quite frankly, that scared many men. Thus, the women they created were alluring, but often quietly menacing- the rise of the femme fatale.

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Primrose and Feather by Alphonse Mucha, 1899

 

Influential Jewish Artists

In celebration of Chanukah, I wanted to take a moment to talk about a few artists of Jewish descent that have somehow shaped the discipline they ascribed themselves to.

 

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Nu Feminin by Amadeo Modigliani, oil painting, 1918

Starting off with one of the larger names in art history, Amadeo Modigliani was an Italian Jew. He grew up hearing about the master paintings held in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence and when he fell sick with typhoid fever at the tender age of 14, his mother promised to take him to visit when he recovered. Clearly, he did, and she didn’t merely plan a visit to the museum, she signed him up for lessons with the painter Guglielmo Micheli. Modigliani showed great skill in painting, but reacted against the conventions of the time. He preferred painting indoors as opposed to en plein air, and rather than paint landscapes (to my knowledge, three exist) he chose portraiture and the human figure. Moving to Paris, he contracted tuberculosis- which he treated with alcohol and drugs, creating a whirlpool of physical pain, addiction, and depression that fed into his art style. In his work, the figures are elongated, and his work fits into no specific discipline.

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No.61 by Mark Rothko, oil painting, 1953

Onto one of my favorite artists, Mark Rothko. Rothko was born in Russia, moving to the United States- to Portland, Oregon before moving to NYC to attend Yale. After dropping out, he fell in with the avant-garde crowd and began to paint as well. His early paintings were dark urban interiors, but it wasn’t until Milton Avery encouraged him that he felt he could pursue a career as a fine artist. At his core, he was a radical activist who connected strongly with his Jewish heritage, and was deeply passionate about worker’s and women’s rights. He was raised by a staunchly Marxist father who abhorred religion. As he matured, so did his work, slowly evolving into fields of color.

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Pasadena Lifesavers #5 by Judy Chicago, Acrylic airsprayed onto acrylic, 1970

Judy Chicago was born into a family with a long lineage of rabbis, and grew up knowing she wanted to be an artist. Born Judy Cohen, she adopted the last name ‘Chicago’ to embrace her greater understanding of not just the world she lives in, but also herself. Following that, she fully dedicated herself to women’s rights and empowerment, whether it be through her own teaching, work, or supporting other women artists. She’s shared her view on many things from ‘the male gaze’ in Powerplay, to narrating childbirth through The Birth Project. Following those projects, she became more interested in her heritage in The Holocaust Project: From Darkness to Light, most of which is currently on display in Pittsburgh.

Happy holidays to all, be safe and best of luck for the coming year!

Museums’ Importance in the Growing World of Tech

Museums have had a place in society for centuries as a place to house information. The word museum has been applied to many concepts varying from places dedicated to philosophical discussion in ancient Rome, to curio collections, and finally to collections of art and literature that were of value to scholars. In modern years, the word has come to represent an institution with an aim to provide an education for the public.

Recently however with the incredible wealth of information available through the internet, museums have to find a way to evolve with the people that walk through the door. There needs to be more of a reason for tourists to stop by than to simply check something off a list of things to do.

Now, art museums will always be important for art students and scholars, but it’s getting harder for them to reach the vast majority of those who don’t fit into either category. There’s often a level of stuffiness surrounding the viewing of art in a museum setting, the viewer feels pressured to understand and like it for the sole reason that it’s hanging before them, and there’s very little room for creating a dialogue about the art. After all, it’s not like the curators are hanging out in the galleries to talk to everyone about why they believe that each individual work is important enough to be on the wall, and audio guides and catalogues can only help so much.

Out of the museums that I have visited recently, I have to say my visit to the MoMA was the most immersive and educating, despite the Met being my absolute favorite place on Earth. The MoMA had a gallery talkback session that I happened to stumble into, and the attendants I spoke to were excited to be there, whereas at others I’ve found them much more cold and uninviting. In addition, the exhibitions had a variety to them that made each piece new and interesting. The stuffiness was more of a scent in the air rather than the fog it usually is, and I think they’re really onto something there.

I don’t have all the answers and I’ll be the first to admit it, especially when it comes to what I love. However, I do believe much more can be done to change the environments of these long-esteemed institutions to help keep it that way. What if we took notes from the Ancient Romans, and used these institutions where conversation is fostered, where people come to question, and ultimately learn from what they see in front of them? What if we took a look at what drew people to those curios collections and replicate that same feeling? It’s absolutely possible, and at this point bordering on necessary.

 

African Art is So Underrated

For some reason, it’s often overlooked in favor of Western art.

I happened to stumble across a jazz festival in my city, and sat (and danced) through a wonderful performance by Awa Sangho of Mali, whose timbre and energy  is similar to that of another favorite of mine, Angelique Kidjo. The vibrancy of the song and dance reminded me how much I love African art. However, I will preface this saying that I really only have a background in Ewe and Yoruba art, so that’s what I’ll focus on.

It’s rather unfortunate that African art is so commonly overlooked in favor of European and American art. The people of West Africa have such a rich, vibrant culture that reflects throughout everything they create, be it song, dance, textiles, or even sculptures and masks. They pour their souls into the craft, and it’s truly incredible to see.

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The Ewe of Ghana and Togo produced (and continue to do so) wonderfully diverse and vibrant tapestries called Kente, described by the annual Kente Festival as “the web of human emotions, cultural values, social identity, ideas, and even dreams that have been woven inextricably into one unit.” A lofty claim for sure, but there’s no doubt that they’re made with extreme care.

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Ere Ibeji (twin figure), by the Yoruba of Nigeria

Art has flourished with the Yoruba people for centuries, clearly evidenced by their intricate ceremonial masks and fertility statues. For example, the statuette above was carved to protect a deceased twin from abiku, or spirits of the children born to die. The careful engraving of the hair and carving of the figure’s face, however  the features are exaggerated, show how skilled the artisans are. The masks are also incredibly detailed and really represent the heart of the group of people who make them.

The art of these people is so unlike what westerners are accustomed to, since it’s not “art” in the same sense. It’s less about creating a work of art, and more about creating something not just useful, but deeply meaningful. Everything- masks, statuettes, clothing- is crafted with such remarkable care. One thing I find interesting is there are generally no artists names’ attached since the objects  weren’t just created for the veneration of the artist, and served a function in daily life, whereas European and American art has no purpose besides being art. Yes, it can inspire thought and extricate specific emotions from the mess of human life, but if you don’t look at it, what does it do? I hope that more students and artists decide to give African art a chance, there’s so much more to learn from it than you’d initially think.

Post-Impressionism’s Resurgence

Van Gogh finally gets his time to shine, a few years too late

In the last few years, I’ve noticed an incredibly large amount of art history thrown onto anything and everything- from Frida Kahlo earrings (I had a pair), Hieronymus Bosch Doc Martens (high on my wishlist), to it’s popularity in meme culture. Art history is everywhere, but there’s one particular movement that sticks out, Post-Impressionism. In particular, Van Gogh.

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#Selfie Van Gogh tee by BootsTees on Etsy, you can get it here.

You can find his paintings anywhere, Doctor Who (this clip made me cry the first time I watched it, fair warning), socks, even my dad had a phone case with Starry Night!  He’s also the subject of the first fully hand-painted movie, titled Loving Vincent, which took over 100 individual artists to complete. Needless to say, the world has an intense infatuation with Vincent, and his work deserves it. The man was a genius.

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Detail of a Self Portrait Drawing, Van Gogh. Look at how he describes the planes of his face through linework.

Vincent’s incredible popularity I believe can be attributed to a host of things, first and foremost being his ingenuity in both color and linework. If you were to take a look at any one of his sketches, finished drawings, or most definitely paintings, you would see that every single line he lays is describing the plane of the surface it rests on. Every single line. In addition, his markmaking is ridiculously descriptive of the textures he is attempting to capture, all while retaining it’s impressionistic feel. Not only does he use the line work of the piece to emphasize form, he also is incredibly skilled in color theory. He meticulously chose colors based on their compliments, even writing about his choices in a letter to his brother, Theo. He chose his colors from the specific color wheel created by the chemist Eugène Chevreul after reading about his take on color theory. He places colors directly, or extremely close to their complimentary colors in order to make the color really pop.

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Wheat Field with Cypress Trees, Van Gogh 1889. One of my personal favorites.

In addition to his creative genius and technical skill, I believe that a part of people’s love for his work reflects a slow shift in society’s contemporary artistic values from heavy abstraction to more of an appreciation for technical skill, particularly when it’s used to express emotion.

All in all, dear Vincent truly deserves the posthumous fame he’s garnered, no matter the reason. Anyone- art lover or not, can enjoy Starry Night, and it’s bringing art back to pop culture. Although to be honest, I just really enjoy buying everyday items covered in art.

 

 

 

Standing at the Crossroads of Art and Science

The push and pull between two vastly different subjects.

As John Cage, the American composer has said, “The function of Art is to imitate Nature in her manner of operation.”

Our understanding of “her manner of operation” changes according to advances in the sciences.” Science and art have always operated hand-in-hand, particularly with the impacts of scientific advances on the artistic mind (and vice-versa). There are countless examples throughout the history of man, spanning from the innovations in the Lascaux caves to the mathematical ‘art’ of fractals. Art and Science are everywhere, and it’s only natural that they push each other to their limits- leading to some of the greatest creative ideas the world has seen.

Biomorphic Surrealism, an offshoot of the Surrealist movement, consisted of  a group of expressedly scientific- minded artists who were interested particularly with the groundbreaking discoveries happening at the molecular level and incorporated aspects of them into their work. The artists utilized the unique patterns and fluid, organic lines that are found in even the tiniest natural forms into their work. Joan Miró was a very influential artist involved in this movement, and he encouraged organic forms to express themselves in his art, often beginning through scribbling on the canvas, and creating figure-like images out of the doodles he had just created. Microscopes had just been greatly improved and allowed biologists to finally see microorganisms clearly, and many artists fell in love and began replicating the microscopic organic forms that they saw before them.

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Joan Miró’s The Hunter (Catalan Landscape), painted in 1924. It’s easy to see the influence of microorganisms on his work.

Perhaps one of art’s loftiest goals is to imitate nature, and throughout history any time that there has been a significant advance in a scientific field- be it biology, archeology, or almost especially chemistry, there has almost always been creative explosion in another area of art. But at the same time, we must not forget the influence that art has had on science as well! Thanks to Da Vinci sneaking out in the middle of the night and dissecting human corpses, making sure to note what he found in his incredible journals, we learned far more about the musculature of the human body than we would have otherwise, since the Vatican had strict laws on disrespecting the dead. In addition, the mathematical discovery of the Fibonacci Sequence and its close sibling the Golden Section became the go-to compositional guide for many artists- from Raphael to Degas, even Dali.

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Rembrandt van Rijn’s The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. This was a commissioned work, while Da Vinci’s journals were secret- 100 years and a different religion can make a huge difference.

Most likely being the most influential art-related scientific discovery to date was the creation of chemically based pigments, which allowed the saturation of virtually every color available to skyrocket.  The creation of chemically-based pigments allowed paints to become much more vibrant than ever before, since artists were no longer restrained to using a much more muted palette like those of the older masters. This, along with the newfound idea of optical mixture, resulted in the impressionists abandoning traditional methods of applying color to a painting. Delacroix was one of the first artists to truly experiment with the new possibilities of inorganic pigments in oil painting. Unlike those who came before him, he placed colors adjacent to their complements in order to create even greater contrast, and also started using brighter, broader strokes of color. After taking some time to get used to the idea, many artists took this idea and ran with it.

Art and science, seemingly near opposites on the surface, are inexplicably connected. Discoveries made in one of these fields ultimately influences the other, as C. S. Smith of MIT said, “What artists have accomplished is realizing is there’s only a small amount of this stuff that’s important, and then seeing what it was. So they can do some of my research for me. It cannot be avoided, then, for science to stumble upon something that ends up aiding the artists.”

At the end of the day, one thing remains crystal clear- Art will always influence Science, and Science will always influence Art- pushing and pulling each other further.After all, if art seeks to describe life and its meaning through visual descriptions, and as Hawking wrote in A Brief History of Time, “the goal of Science is to reduce the entire universe to a single equation.” – should the two not support each other?